According to art. 48 points 3 of the Act of 27 August 2004 on health care services financed from public funds:

Art. 48.
3. Programs referred to in paragraph 1, concern in particular:
1) important epidemiological phenomena;
2) other than specified in point 1 of significant health problems concerning the whole or a given group of beneficiaries with the existing possibilities of eliminating or reducing these problems;
3) implementation of new medical procedures and preventive measures.

The Ministry of Health treats as the main health problems:

Respiratory system diseases
Cardiovascular disease
Malignant neoplasms
Diseases of the digestive system
Injuries and poisoning
Infectious diseases
Occupational and work-related diseases
Invalidity and disability
Tooth decay and periodontal disease
Mental disorders
The main health problems are groups of diseases and problems that, based on statistical data, are most common among Polish residents. Health programs and health policy programs should take into account these diseases, while the diagnosis should be additionally supplemented with the health situation at the local level, which may vary in individual regions of Poland.

When describing the main health problems, it should be remembered that their occurrence varies between different age groups, occupational groups, etc. In preschool and school children, one of the most important health problems are respiratory diseases, which are the most common reason for doctor visits. Among adults, injuries and accidents are an important problem, especially traffic accidents. In the elderly, however, the dominating problem is cardiovascular disease or cancer, the majority of which occurs after the age of 60.

The health situation of Polish citizens, despite a significant improvement after World War II, is quite unfavorable against the European background. Despite the significant decrease in the total number of deaths caused mainly by eradicating infectious diseases, the level of premature mortality is still very high.

The main health threats of the inhabitants of the Polish Ministry of Health included faulty lifestyle, low physical activity, irregularities in the diet, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, especially high-proof drinks, the use of other psychoactive substances (except alcohol and nicotine), hazards from the social environment or threats in the physical environment.